Types of Concrete

In general, concrete is categorized in the following ways:
  1. Based on Bulk Density of Concrete
  2. Based on Binder Used
  3. Based on Consistency of Concrete
  4. Based on Concrete Strength
  5. Based on Purpose
  1. Based on Bulk Density of Concrete
  2. According to its bulk density, concrete falls into the following categories:

    1. Light weight concrete
    2. Light weight concrete

      The maximum bulk density of lightweight concrete is 1900 kg/m3. This form of concrete is made by combining a hydraulic binder, water, and admixtures with a light-weight, porous filler, such as quartz sand. Bulk densities of up to 2,100 kg/m3 are permissible, but only if the mechanical properties are also enhanced.

    3. Classic (ordinary) concrete
    4. Bulk density of Ordianry concrete is from 1900 kg/m3 to 2500 kg/m3

    5. Heavy-weight concrete
    6. Heavy concrete has a bulk density of above 2500 kg/m3. To increase the concrete's bulk density, heavy aggregates like barite, iron ore (magnetite, hematite, and limonite), splinters, or iron and steel balls are sometimes used. Boron and lithium chemicals are often added to high-strength concrete to increase its resistance to damage. The tensile strength of heavy-weight concrete is only about 1–3 MPa, while the compressive strength seldom goes over 40 MPa.

  3. Based on Binder Used
  4. The function of a Binding material (Cement or Lime) is to bind the coarse and fine aggregate particles together.There are several types of concrete depending on the binder that was used to mix it.

    1. Cement concrete
    2. It is conventional concrete in which cement is used as a binder.

    3. Asphalt concrete
    4. Asphalt concrete, also known as asphalt, blacktop, and pavement in North America and tarmac, bitumen macadam, and rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, is a composite material used for paving roadways, parking lots, airport runways, and the inside of embankment dams. Bulk density of Asphalt concrte is about 2243 kg/m3

    5. Polymer concrete
    6. Polymer Concrete

      Polymer cement concrete is a composite concrete made up of synthetic polymer in the binding material. The benefits of polymer concrete include increased qualities, less need for energy, and reduced labor expenses. It is also known as Polymer Portland cement concrete (PPCC) or latex-modified concrete (LMC). It is often used in Bridge deck coverings, floor construction, precast construction or as a patching compounds.

  5. Based on Consistency of Concrete
  6. Consistency is the relative mobility or ability of freshly mixed concrete to flow. It includes the entire range of fluidity from the driest to the wettest possible mixtures.There are four types of concrete consistency: solid, low-plastic, plastic and liquid.

  7. Based on Concrete Strength
  8. Based on the characteristic strength of concrete at the age of 28 days, concrete is classified.Different countries have different designation to indicate strength of concrete.
    e.g. In India, a grade of concrete with a strength of 20 MPa would be designated by the letters M20, where M stands for Mix and 20 is the concrete’s overall strength in MPa at 28 days. There are various grade of concrete like M10, M15, M20, M25, M30 etc. Strength of concrete may be Cube Strength or Cylinder Strength based on the standards and practises.

  9. Based on Purpose
  10. Based on the intended use, they are classified as:

    1. Reinforced concretes
    2. Prestressed concretes
    3. Precast concretes
    4. Pervious concrete
    5. Hydro-technical concretes
    6. Concretes for pavement structure
    7. Decorative (visible) concretes
    8. Concretes for radiation protection (heavy-weight concrete)
    9. The thermal insulating concretes (light-weight concretes)
    10. The waterproofing concretes
    11. The soundproofing concretes (light-weight concretes)
    12. Concretes for fire protection,
    13. Concrete and mortar for reparation