Crushed Stone

Crushed stone is produced by mining and crushing rock into angular pieces. Although Crushed Stone and Gravel are used interchangeably, both are distinctly different materials. Crushed stone is a commercial product whereas Gravel is a natural object made up of pieces of rock bigger than 2 millimeters in diameter that have been moved by water and are generally round because of this. The shape of the grains and man’s role in producing them are the differences that separate crushed stone from gravel.

Crushed stone

Uses of Crushed Stone

Road ConstructionMacadamChemical Stone
RiprapJetty StoneGlass Manufacture
Filter StoneConcrete AggregateMine Safety Dust
Bituminous AggregateRailroad BallastAcid Neutralization
Concrete SandGraded Road BaseWhiting
Unpaved Road SurfacingTerrazzoLandscape Stone
Roofing GranulesAgricultural LimestoneTraction Stone
Poultry GritFillAsphalt Fillers
CementLimeFillers and Extenders
Exposed Aggregate ConcreteMineral Food SupplementsSulfur Oxide Removal
Dead Burned DolomiteBlast Furnace Flux

Rock Types used for Crushed Stone

  1. Argillite,
  2. Dolomite,
  3. Granite,
  4. Limestone,
  5. Marble,
  6. Sand stone,
  7. Slate,
  8. Trap rock,
  9. Quartzite,
  10. Volcanic cinder

Crushed Stone Sizes and Uses

Knowing the purpose for which you will be using crushed stone and gravel will assist you choose the appropriate size to purchase. Keep in mind that different projects, such as drains, a driveway, a lawn, a road, a decoration job, etc., need different grades for the best results.

There are 10 major gravel sizes and numerous additional specialized sizes based on the size or diameter of the stone particles used to make up the gravel.

It is possible for there to be slight variations in the names given to each size from one location (country, state, or supplier) to the next. However, their applications and particle diameters are quite similar. Grades don’t tell you which stone was crushed, i.e., granite, limestone, sandstone, or slate, but rather the stone size. Let's take a look at the most popular crushed stone or gravel sizes.

  • Heavy-duty tasks include constructing culvert ballasts or filling deep holes
  • Locations close to bodies of water or in areas where soil erosion is likely to occur
  • Lining ditches and lining diversion pits for rainwater
  • Driveway or road subbase that requires Gravel screening.
  • Use them as aesthetically pleasing stones in yard, garden, or patio, laying them out in patterns or as borders.
1/2" to 2-2/2"
  • Useful for major landscaping and building projects, railroad ballast, and culvert ballast construction.
  • Subbase layer of a road, highway, or driveway that need stability.
  • Existing locations and entrances in drywall construction
  • Stormwater management systems
  • Filtration system for septic tanks
  • Decoration and landscaping
  • Drainage projects
  • Septic tank foundations
  • Dry wells
  • More extensive projects like culvert ballast, roads, railroads, and so on
  • Driveway base with screening
1" or less
  • Driveway and road base
  • Concrete mixes
  • In asphalt, as part of the aggregate
  • Subbase for concrete patio, driveways, and sidewalks
  • Placed on sidewalks and driveway
  • Decorative purposes, especially around trees
  • Drainage systems
  • Horse barns final base
1/8" or smaller
  • Base for paving stones, clay bricks, or concrete pavers (with a leveling compound).
  • Base material in the production of precast concrete products including bricks, blocks, and slabs.
  • Since it is so sturdy and reliable, it is used in many patio projects as final layer
  • Added to larger stones crevices to help pack or stop movement
About 3/4"
  • Foundation backfills
  • Landscaping
  • French drains
  • Drainage control
  • The base for paved driveways
  • Top dressing walkways, pathways, and driveway is easy to drive through and doesn’t get muddy if you have the correct sub-base.
  • Railroad ballast, sidewalk, asphalt, shed, and paved driveway base
  • Driveway and RV pads
  • Retaining walls
  • Lining underground cables and pipes
  • Making concrete mix and aggregate for hot-mixed asphalt
Less than 3/4"
  • Around drain pipes to boost drainage
  • Fill and backfilling retaining walls
  • Stabilize hard to compact soil
  • Premixed concrete and hot-mix asphalt
  • Material for slab and road base
  • Driveway, and walkaways gravel