Drywall is a panel used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings that is made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper. Fiber (usually paper, glass wool, or a combination of these materials), plasticizer, foaming agent, and chemicals that may prevent mildew, flammability, and water absorption are all added to the plaster mixture before it is applied. Drywall is also known as plasterboard, dry lining, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, turtles board, slap board, custard board, and gypsum panel.

Types of Drywall, application and how it's made

TypeApplicationHow it is made
Regular DrywallStandard, non-rated wall, ceiliings, or architectural featuresGypsum mixed with water, starch, paper pulp and emulsifier to form standarddrywall sheets.
Fire rated (Type "X" or "Perlite")Walls or ceilings that require a fire-rating beyond 20 minutes.Fiber strands are added to standard gypsum mixture to maintain the structural integrity of the sheet for a longer period of time in the event of a fire.
Impact ResistantHigh abuse areas like schools or dormitoriesFiber strands are added to the gypsum mixture and thicker paper is used to prevent damage.
Moisture Resistant (Green board)Bathrooms, basements, or other areas prone to moisture.Water-resistant green paper covers a typical gypsum core.
Sound Board (Quiet Rock)Multi family units, or anywhere that noise transmission is concern.Viscoelastic polymers are added to traditional gypsum board. These polymers convert noisy energy to heat energy, which is not audible.
Lead lined drywallX-ray rooms or areas subject to radiationA 1/16" layer of lead is placed between the gypsum core and the paper backing, blocking x-ray waves from penetrating the wall.
Flexible drywallTight arches or curvesTypical drywall formed into 1/4" sheets and wet down before use to make them more flexible.
Blue BoardAs a base for veneer plaster (1 1/8" layer of plaster installed over drywall to achieve a specific look)Typical drywall covered with a special green coating that makes it easier for the veneer plaster to adhere.

Drywall installation

Cutting the sheets to the desired lengths is the first stage in drywall installation. Do this using a drywall saw on a flat, dry surface. Holes for plugs, switches, and the like may be cut using a keyhole saw or a circular cutter.


The drywall panels are then attached to the studs or the furring strips that have been placed over the brick or stone. Panels are attached vertically to metal studs, but it is recommended that they be attached horizontally to wood studs, since timber is more prone to warp with time and hanging the panels horizontally (together with drywall glue) helps limit deflection. Nails or screws may be used to secure wallboard or plasterboard. About every 10 centimeters, a screw is inserted.

Joint tape and joint compound applied with a finishing knife are used to cover up the seams where two panels meet during the finishing process. After the compound has dried and set, it may be lightly sanded with a piece of sandpaper until the surface is smooth and level with the rest of the wall and no tape remains visible.

Ceiling drywall is often thinner than wall drywall since it is not required to support as much weight. To ensure the ceiling has enough support, the walls should be erected first.

To fix damage, minor holes may be filled with joint compound and sanded down to a flat surface. If the hole is large enough, you may use a scrap of drywall and some joint compound to patch it up.